Zolpidem

"Zolpidem" Wikipedia (via DBPedia)

Zolpidem (brand names Ambien, Ambien CR, Intermezzo, Stilnox, and Sublinox) is a prescription medication used for the treatment of insomnia and some brain disorders. It is a short-acting nonbenzodiazepine hypnotic of the imidazopyridine class that potentiates GABA, an inhibitory neurotransmitter, by binding to GABAA receptors at the same location as benzodiazepines. It works quickly, usually within 15 minutes, and has a short half-life of two to three hours. Zolpidem has not adequately demonstrated effectiveness in maintaining sleep, unless delivered in a controlled-release (CR) form. However, it is effective in initiating sleep. Its hypnotic effects are similar to those of the benzodiazepine class of drugs, but it is molecularly distinct from the classical benzodiazepine molecule and is classified as an imidazopyridine. Flumazenil, a benzodiazepine receptor antagonist, which is used for benzodiazepine overdose, can also reverse zolpidem's sedative/hypnotic and memory-impairing effects. As a muscle relaxant and anticonvulsant, the drug's effects are not evident until dosages 10 and 20 times those required for sedation, respectively, are reached. For that reason, zolpidem has never been approved for either muscle relaxation or seizure prevention. Such drastically increased doses are also more inclined to induce one or more of the drug's adverse side effects, including hallucinations and amnesia. The United States patent for zolpidem was held by the French pharmaceutical corporation Sanofi-Aventis. On April 23, 2007, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved 13 generic versions of zolpidem tartrate. Zolpidem is available from several generic manufacturers in the UK, as a generic from Sandoz in South Africa and TEVA in Israel, as well as from other manufacturers such as Ratiopharm (Germany). On January 10, 2013, the Food and Drug Administration announced it is requiring the manufacturer of Ambien and Zolpimist to cut the recommended dosage for women in half, after laboratory studies showed that the medicines can leave patients drowsy in the morning and at risk for car accidents. The FDA recommended that manufacturers extend the new dosage cuts to men as well, who process the drug at a faster rate. However, the reasons why men and women catabolize the drugs at different rates is still unknown. more »

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"Zolpidem" Latest News - The Guardian

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Drug-related deaths in England and Wales fall, but rise among females

Both the numbers and mortality rates of drug-related deaths in England and Wales fell in 2011, but both figures rose for females. Get the data... More »

"Zolpidem" Most Relevant - The Guardian

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Marcel Berlins on PVS and fair trials

Marcel Berlins: The "miracle drug" Zolpidem may turn out to have a dramatic effect on the whole right-to-die debate, and on the way that families, doctors and the law will look on PVS (persistent vegetative state) from now on. ... More »

UK news

Sedative blamed in sleep-driving cases

One of Britain's most popular sleeping drugs has been blamed for a series of bizarre events in which patients have driven their cars or had eating binges in the middle of the night while still unconscious.... More »

Society

Court heeds right-to-die family's plea

A woman in a persistent vegetative state will be allowed to die after an attempt to wake her up with an experimental drug failed, the high court ruled today.... More »

Society

Mother says it would be 'unbearably cruel' to try to wake vegetative patient with drug

The elderly mother of a woman in a persistent vegetative state who a judge ruled should be given a "wonder drug" which could temporarily awaken her while leaving her severely disabled told the judge that it would be "unbearably cruel" to let her live.... More »

Society

Judge rejects right-to-die plea by family

Court orders 'miracle' drug treatment.... More »

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